Friday, 15 June 2012

Glimpse of Android

     Android is one of the operating system for mobile phones Linux-based. And Android is a mobile device that includes the system operations, middleware. Android provides an open platform that can developed by developers for their own applications for use on various mobile devices.
      In 2005 Google's Android Inc. at the time led by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and chris white. Which later in the year it also started intensive build Android platform. 12 November 2007 Google with the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) is an open consortium of mobile devices, Google released the Android SDK, after announcing a week earlier. And his speech was remarkable, almost all of the news media on IT & Programming preach about the release of the Android SDK (Software Development Kit) is. SDK provides tools and APIs needed to develop applications on the Android platform with the Java programming language.
      In this world there are two types of distributors operating system Android. first are fully supported by Google or Google Mail Services (GMS) and the second is a completely free distribution without the direct support of Google's otherwise known as the Open Handset Distribution (OHD).

LCD Program Using Bascom-8051

     In this program the data mode used is mode 4 data bits, so it is used only DB4 - DB7. If the microcontroller is only used to write characters to the LCD then the pin R / W can be connected to the ground. Potentiometer used to adjust the contrast of the displayed character.

'Program LCD_1.bas
'Program untuk menampilkan pesan teks sederhana pada LCD
'Inisialisasi LCD
Config Lcd = 16 * 2
Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = P2.4 , Db5 = P2.5 , Db6 = P2.6,
Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db7 = P2.7 , E = P2.2 , Rs = P2.0
P2.1 = 0                      'R/W=0

Cursor Off                         
Lcd "Sistem Komputer Gunadarma"
Lcd "Kalimalang"


Bascom-8051 Programming

     Bascom-8051 using a Basic compiler is a program based on Windows which can be used for the 8051 microcontroller family, for example AT89S51/52/55 and AT89S2051/4051. Demo version of Bascom-8051 developed by MCS Electronic can be downloaded at freely. For the demo version of the code that can be created and executed the microcontroller is limited amount of up to 4 KBytes, but this is not a problem because according to the internal program storage capacity on the AT89S51.
      In general, the language used to program the microcontroller Assembly language is. Assembly language is a medium-level programming languages​​, where programs are made closer to machine language, so pemenfaatan optimal memory can be done, but on the other side of its programming to be relatively difficult.
     Because the language used Bascom, namely Basic, the language level high, then the programming using Bascom is easy to learn. The syntax is not much different from Basic in general, such as do-loops, for-next,
while-wend, goto, gosub, and so forth. In addition Bascom equipped with special functions, such as an LCD to display characters on LCD, PRINT to send characters to the PC via RS232 cable, and SHIFTOUT SHIFTIN to synchronous serial communication, and so forth. Special functions if written in Assembly language will become more lengthy and complicated, especially because we must know that there are registers in the microcontroller.

Ticker in JAVA MIDlet

    Ticker object can be associated with a subclass of Screen objects. Ticker is an object in the form of walking or writing a line of text that can discrolling constantly on display. Direction and speed of the Ticker can not be set manually, because it has been governed by the system and ongoing Ticker can not be stopped by the application. The following is a sample program Ticker.

       1     import javax.microedition.midlet.*;
       2     import javax.microedition.lcdui.*;
       4     public class TickerDemo extends MIDlet
implements CommandListener
       5     {
       6               private Form  form;
       7               private Ticker  ticker;
       8               private Display  display;
       9               private Command  cmdKeluar;
      11             public TickerDemo () {
      12             }
      14             public void startApp()        {
      15             form = new Form("Latihan Membuat Ticker");
      16             ticker = new Ticker("Lab Sist Komp Lanjut");
      17             form.setTicker(ticker);
      18             display=Display.getDisplay(this);
      19             display.setCurrent(form);
      20             cmdKeluar = new Command ("Keluar", Command.EXIT, 0);
      21             form.addCommand(cmdKeluar);
      22             form.setCommandListener(this);
      23              }
      25             public void pauseApp()        {
      26             }
      28             public void destroyApp(boolean unconditional)              {
      29             notifyDestroyed();
      30             }
      32             public void commandAction(Command c, Displayable d) {
      33             if (c == cmdKeluar)  {
      34             destroyApp(true);
      35             }
      36              }
      37     }

Output : 

Form in JAVA MIDlet

     Form can be considered as a page for entering data. form may consist of components commonly referred to as items. collection of items that exist in a form on the concept stored in the array, so that accessing can be done using the index. The following example Form program in java MIDlet.

       1    import javax.microedition.midlet.*;
       2    import javax.microedition.lcdui.*;
       4    public class FormDemo extends MIDlet implements CommandListener
       5      {
       6              private Form form;
       7              private Display display;
       8              private Command cmdKeluar;
      10             public FormDemo () {
      11             }
      13             public void startApp()        {
      14             form = new Form("Latihan Membuat Form");
      15             form.append("MIDlet pertamaku!");
      16             display=Display.getDisplay(this);
      17             display.setCurrent(form);
      19             cmdKeluar = new Command ("Keluar", Command.EXIT, 0);
      20             form.addCommand(cmdKeluar);
      21             form.setCommandListener(this);
      22             }
      24             public void pauseApp()        {
      25             }
      27             public void destroyApp(boolean unconditional)              {
      28             notifyDestroyed();
      29             }
      31             public void commandAction(Command c, Displayable d ) {
      32             if ( c  == cmdKeluar ) {
      33             destroyApp(true);
      34             }
      35             }
      36   }

Output :

Fundamental Difference Between ATMEGA8535 and AT89S51

Features of the ATMEGA8535 microcontroller is as follows:

1) Channel I / O as much as 32 pieces, the port A, Port B, Port C and Port D.
2) 10-bit ADC with 8 channels.
3) Three Timer / Counter with benchmarking capabilities.
4) CPU register consists of 32 pieces.
5) Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator.
6) as much as 512 bytes of SRAM.
7) Flash Memory at 8 kb to Read While Write capability.
8) Unit internal and external interrupts.
9) Port SPI interface.
10) a 512 byte EEPROM can be programmed during the operation.
11) analog comparator interface.
12) Port USART for serial communication.

Features of the AT89S51 microcontroller is as follows:

1) A CPU (Central Processing Unit) 8 bits including MCS51 family.
2) internal oscillator and timing circuits, 128 bytes of internal RAM (on chip).
3) Four programmable I / O ports, each consisting of 8 lines I / O
4) Two 16-bit Timer Counter.
5) Five of the interrupt lines (2 external interrupts and internal interrupts 3)
6) A serial port with full duplex UART serial control.
7) Ability to perform multiplication, division and Boolean operations (bit)
8) The speed of execution of instructions per cycle 1 microdetik at 12 MHz clock frequency
9) 4 Kbytes Flash ROM that can be loaded and removed up to 1000 times
10) In-System Programmable Flash Memory

Minimum System ATMEGA8535

        ATMEGA8535 AVR microcontroller family is a feature complete with a number of pin I / O a lot. AVR microcontroller (Alf and Vegard's Risc processor) is one of the development of microelectronics products from Atmel vendor. AVR is a technology that has a good capability at an economical cost is quite minimal. 
     In general, AVR can be grouped into four classes, namely ATiny family, family AT90Sxx, Family ATMega, and AT86RFxx. Basically that distinguish each class is memory, peripherals, and its function. In terms of architecture and instruction are used, they can say almost the same. The following minimum system is a series of ATMEGA8535.

Data Mining

     Data mining is the extraction of interesting patterns from large amounts of data. A pattern is said to be interesting if the pattern is not trivial, implicit, previously unknown, and useful. Patterns that are presented must be easily understood, applicable to the data to be predicted with some degree of certainty, useful, and the new. Data mining has several alternative names, although its exact definition is different, such as KDD (knowledge discovery in databases), pattern analysis, archaeological data, harvest information, and business intelligence. Data mining is needed when data are available are too many (eg data obtained from the company database systems, e-commerce, stock data, bioinformatics and data), but do not know what the pattern can be obtained.

Source : wikipedia

PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)

     PWM is a mechanism for generating an output signal over the period between high and low where we can control the duration of high and low signal in accordance with what we want. Percent duty cycle is the period of high signal and the signal period, the percentage of duty cycle will be directly proportional to the average voltage produced. The following illustration of the PWM signal, eg, high condition 5 V and the condition of low 0 V. Setting a pulse width modulation or PWM is one technique that "powerful" as used in the current control system. Width modulation is used in different settings very broad field, one of which is: speed control, power control, measurement and communication.
Thursday, 10 May 2012

Adjective or Relative Pronoun

Theories About Adjective Clauses

     A relative clause is another name for an adjective clause. This is because both perform a function similar to an adjective in a sentence--they add information to a noun.

There are two types of relative/adjective clauses: restrictive and nonrestrictive

1. Restrictive Clauses

"I want a bag that is green."

In this sentence, the relative clause "that is green" answers the question,
 "Which bag do you want?" or "What kind of bag do you want?" 
Because it answers this question, it is a restrictive relative clause.

2. Nonrestrictive Clause

"My father, who lives in Chicago City, is 45."

In this sentence, the relative clause "who lives in Chicago City" does not answer the question, "Which one?".
 Instead, it gives extra information. Because it gives extra information, it is a nonrestrictive relative clause.

Recognize an adjective clause when you see one

An adjective clause—also called an adjectival or relative clause—will meet three requirements:
  1. First, it will contain a subject and verb.
  2. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or arelative adverb [when, where, or why].
  3. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?
The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns:

" Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb "

      " Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb "

Here are some examples Relative Pronoun :

  • Where : used for places (Liaison word that is used to place)
           - The hotel where we stayed last summer was very beautiful.
  • Whose : used for humans, animalsi or objects to give information about their  possessions
           Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie
           Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb.
  • Who : used for humans in subject position
           Who hiccupped for seven hours after ward
           Who = relative pronoun functioning as subject; hiccupped = verb.
  • When : used for time (Liaison word used to describe the time)
           -  My baby was born in the year when I moved to Italy.
           -  This is the year whenthe Olympic Games are held.
  • Which : used for things and animals in subject or object position (objects of verbs and prepositions)
           -  Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere. 
           -  The chair which he broke is being repaired.(verb object)
           -  She was wearing the coat for which she had paid $2,00.(preposition 
  • Why   
          Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie 
          Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb, 
          is not officially part of  the verb].
  • Whom : used for humans in object position (Object and verb object preposition)
          - Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
          - He paid the man whom/that he had hired. (verb object)
          - He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money. (preposition
  • That : used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position 
          That bounced across the kitchen floor
          That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.

Example Adjective Clause

      Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, giving a description or more information. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb such as when, where and why.

Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined :
  1. Donuts, which most people love, is not very healthy.
  2. The people whose names are on the list will go to camp.
  3. Grandpa remembers the old days when there was no television. 
  4. Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.
  5. Students who are intelligent get good grades.
  6. Eco-friendly cars that run on electricity save gas. 

The Article Containing the Adjective Clause (Underline)

      Once upon a time there was a prosperous village in a far away island called Sumatra. In northern part of the island, lived a farmer whose name was Toba. He lived alone in a hut by a small forest. He worked on his farmland to grow rice and vegetables that he sells to local market. Once day he wanted to catch some fish so he went to a river and fished there. He was very surprised when he got a big fish. The fish was as big as human being. Soon he went home and put the fish in his kitchen. He planned to cook the fish for his dinner that night. When he got to his house that afternoon he took a bath. Then as he walked into his bedroom after taking a bath Toba was very shocked. Do you want to know what happened?

There stood in his living room a very beautiful girl. The girl greeted him nicely. For a moment Toba was speechless. When he could control his emotion he asked her.

‘Who are you? What’s your name? Why suddenly you are here in my house?’

‘Pardon me if I surprised you Mr. Toba, but you took me here. I was the fish that you caught in the river. Now that I become a human being again, I would like to thank you and I will be your servant to express my thankfulness’

‘Were you the fish?’

‘Yes, I was the fish. Look at your kitchen’.

Toba immediately rushed to his kitchen and the fish was nowhere to be seen. He saw some gold coins instead.

‘Whose coins are these? Why there are some coins here?’
‘Those coins are mine. As I changed into human being my scales changed into gold coins’

‘Ok you can live here and work for me. Your room is over there’

‘Thank you very much Mr. Toba’

      Since that day the beautiful girl lived in Toba’s house. Since she was very beautiful Toba fell in love with her and not long after that they got married. The girl married to Toba on one condition that he would never tell anybody about her past. Toba agreed to the condition. Several months later Toba’s wife delivered to a baby boy. Their son was healthy. Soon he grew up into a handsome boy. Toba named him Samosir. Unfortunately Samosir was a lazy boy. He did not want to work at all. When his father worked hard in his rice field and farm, Samosir just slept. When he was awake he talked a lot and he ate a lot. Toba was very disappointed with his son’s nature. He hoped that one day Samosir would change into a diligent boy. Day in and day out but Samosir never changed.

      Toba used to go to his farm and rice field early in the morning. Then at midday his wife would bring him food. They used to eat lunch at their farm. As he was a teenager Toba and his wife tried to change his behavior. They ordered Samosir to bring food for his father for lunch while her mother stayed at home to do household chores. But Samosir never did his duty well. He always woke up very late. He woke up after midday. Then one day his mother forced him to bring the food.

‘Sam, wake up. Go to the farm and bring the food for your father. He must be very tired and hungry now’.
But Mom, I am tired and hungry too’

‘What makes you tired? You just wake up. Go now. You father needs the food’

      Toba reluctantly went to the farm. But he did not go to the farm immediately. He stopped somewhere in the street and ate the food. It was already late afternoon when he got to the farm. His father was disappointed. Then he was angry as he realized that his son had eaten his food. He said sarcastically.

‘O, you are stupid lazy boy. You are son of a fish!’

Samosir was hurt. He went home right away and as he got home he told his mother about his father’s words. Samosir’s mother was shocked. She was also deeply hurt.

‘O Toba. You break your promise so I cannot live with you here anymore. Now you have to accept to consequence of what you did. Samosir, now go to the hill, find the tallest tree and climb it’

‘Why mom? What will happen?’

‘Just do it, never ask any question. Good bye’

      As soon as she finished saying that suddenly the weather changed. Sunny day suddenly turned into cloudy day. Not long after that the rain poured heavily. The rain last for several days. Consequently the area was flooded. The whole area became a big lake. Then it was called Lake Toba and in the middle of the lake there is an island called Samosir Island. Meanwhile Toba’s wife disappeared.

Lake Toba is located in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Today it becomes a tourist destination


      Q :  I talked to the woman she was sitting next to me
      A :  I talked to the woman who was sitting next to me 

      Q :  I have a class it begins at 08.00 Am
      A :  I have a class which begins at 08.00 Am

      Q :  The man called the police his car was stolen
      A :  The man whose car was stolen called the police

      Q :  The building is very old he lives there
      A :  The building where he lives is very old

      Q :  The woman was ms Silvy I saw her
      A :  The woman whom I saw was ms Silvy  

Source :
Saturday, 7 April 2012

Active & Passive Sentences

     Passive sentences or commonly known by the word passive voice or Passive Sentence or there is also a call Passive Forms. In a nutshell definition of Passive Voice mean a transitive verb form of which is the subject of English grammar sentences act as a 'patient', ie that receives the action of a job
Friday, 16 March 2012

Subject-Verb Agreement

1. Singular Subject - Singular Verb

       The definition of the subject is singular subject pronoun he, she, and it, or nouns that can be replaced by he, she or it: While the definition of singular verbs are verb1 + es / s, is / was, and the verb phrase such as: is / + was verb-ing/verb3, has verb3 +, has been verb-ing and has been verb3.

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